Alloy Formulation and Processing

National Laboratory: 
National Energy Technology Laboratory
Computational Tools Class: 
Materials Processing
Process-Structure
Processing/Manufacturing Class: 
Fabrication and synthesis
Thermo-mechanical processing
Description: 

NETL uses computational methods in alloy design, melting, casting, heat treating and deformation processing. Melt processing methods employed include induction melting (air & vacuum), vacuum arc melting (both consumable and non-consumable) and electro-slag remelting. Deformation processing methods include hot forging and hot and cold rolling. Heat treatment furnaces consist of air, selected gas, and vacuum atmospheres.

Capability Bounds: 

Induction Melting

  • Vacuum (or inert gas atmosphere) induction melting
  • One at up to 20 lb / 50 kW
  • One at up to 50 lb / 50 kW
  • One at either 100 lb or 300 lb / 125 kW

Air induction melting 

  • Two at 100 lb / 100 kW
  • Two at 300 lb / 125 kW

Unique inducting melting and casting (not yet installed)

  • 50 and 200 lb Single crystal, directionally solidified (controlled withdrawal, and equiaxed casting)
  • 50 lb (Ti) cold wall (water cooled copper) induction melting
  • 100 lb / 100 bar high pressure, controlled withdrawal furnace

Molding

  • Sand molding and handling capability up to several hundred pounds
  • Lost foam molding and casting capability

Arc Melting

  • Non-consumable (i.e., button) from 10's of grams to 2 lb
  • Vacuum Arc Remelting (VAR) with HMI controls, partial pressure and stirring capability
    •  3" diameter x 50 lb
    •  4" diameter x 110 lb
    •  6" diameter x 250 lb
    • 8" diameter x 440 lb
  •  Electro-Slag Remelting (ESR) with HMI controls and slag feeding capabilities
    • 3" diameter x 50 lb 
    • 4" diameter x 110 lb
    • 6" diameter x 250 lb 
    • 8" diameter x 440 lb -
  • Custom slag design and melting capabilities

Vacuum heat treatment

  • Up to 1300°C
    •  500 lb
    • 14" x 18" x 24"
    • Vacuum or inert gas
    • Furnace (Static) cool
  • Up to 1650°C
    • 100 lb
    • 7" diameter x 14" depth
    • Vacuum or inert gas
    • Furnace (Static) cool

Box Furnace for heat treating and hot working

  • 1500°C in air, inert gas capable, 3' x 3' x 6'
  • 1250°C in air, 1.5' x 2' x 5'
  • 1000°C in air, 3.5' x 2.5' x 8'
  • 1200°C in air, 1' x 1' x 2'
  • 1700°C in air, 1' x 1' x 2'

Hot Working

  • 500 T press forge
    • 36" opening
    • 4" or 10" deep x 24" wide anvils
  • 2-high hot rolling mill (Fenn)
    • 14" diameter x 19" wide rolls
  • 2-high hot/cold rolling mill (Loma)
    • 16" diameter x 19" wide rolls
  • 4-high cold rolling mill (Loma)
    • 3" diameter x 19" wide rolls
  • 2-high hot/cold rolling mill (Oliver)
    • 3" diameter x 5" wide rolls
Unique Aspects: 

The size scale and breadth of facility distinguishes this capability within the national labs.

Availability: 

Facilities are available through collaborative funding proposals or contract.

Single Point of Contact: 

Paul D. Jablonski, Metallurgist, paul.jablonski@netl.doe.gov , 541-967-5982

References: 
  1. Paul D. Jablonski and Paul C. Turner, "Liquid Metal Processing and Casting Experiences at the US Department of Energy's Albany Research Center", 2005 International Symposium on Liquid Metal Processing and Casting, 2005.
  2. Paul D. Jablonski and Christopher J. Cowen, 'Homogenizing a Ni-Based Superalloy: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Simulation and Experimental Results', Met Trans B., 40B 182 (2009)
  3. Paul D. Jablonski, Jeffrey A. Hawk, Christopher J. Cowen, and Philip J. Maziasz, 'Processing of Advanced Alloys for A-USC Steam Turbine Applications,' Journal of Metals, Vol. 64, N 2, pp 271-279, (2012).
Supporting Document(s):