X-ray Diffraction (Residual Stress and Phase Identification, Room and High Temperature, and Texture)

National Laboratory: 
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Characterization Class: 
Extreme Environment Testing
Microscopy
Description: 

Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s x-ray diffraction (XRD) provides information about the arrangement of atoms in top surfaces (typically <50 μm) of materials/samples. These samples can be polycrystalline or single crystal. XRD is a versatile technique that can be used for a multitude of studies: battery charge-discharge, residual stress mapping, crystallographic texture determinations, crystal orientation, process simulation, thermal expansion coefficients, oxidation/reduction kinetics, phase equilibria studies, order/disorder transformations, Rietveld/quantitative analysis, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction for very near surface/coating/thin film interrogations, and/or macro and micro residual stresses in multiphase/composite samples. Materials studied include metals, ceramics, some crystalline polymers, geologic/soils, ceramic composites, metal matrix composites, and thick and thin films.

Capability Bounds: 

Samples must be crystalline, solid or powder. Sample size can vary widely depending upon the instrument and information desired. For example, a portable x-ray stress analyzer can examine the surfaces of 1-mm samples up to automobiles and beyond.

Unique Aspects: 

ORNL has more than 10 XRD units dedicated to phase identification, residual stress, and crystallographic texture determinations. Varied x-ray sources accommodate different sample requirements for polycrystalline and single-crystal samples. In situ studies can be conducted under varied conditions, including high temperature, mechanical load, electrical load, or gas atmospheres. Parallel-beam optics are available for rough samples, as well as a residual stress mapping capability.

Availability: 

Access to ORNL’s XRDs is available to industry through cooperative research and development agreements (CRADAs), Work For Others, or by U.S. Department of Energy funding.

Single Point of Contact: 

Name: Thomas R. Watkins
Email: watkinstr@ornl.gov
Phone: 865-387-6472

References: 
  1. D.Mohanty et al., “Correlating cation ordering and voltage fade in a lithium-manganese- rich lithium-ion battery cathode oxide: a joint magnetic susceptibility and TEM study,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 15 [44] 19496-509 (2013).
  2. J.B.Williams et al., “Enhanced thermoelectric performance driven by high-temperature phase transition in the phase change material Ge4SbTe5,” J. Mater. Res. 30 [17] 2605-10 (2015).
  3. P.B.Kadolkar et al., “State of Residual Stress in Laser-Deposited Ceramic Composite Coatings on Aluminum Alloys,” Acta Mat. 55 1203-14 (2007).
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