Integrated Forming Process Simulations-From Edge Preparation to Stretching and Hole Expansion

National Laboratory: 
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory
Computational Tools Class: 
Materials Processing
Processing/Manufacturing Class: 
Shaping and forming

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provides an integrated manufacturing process simulation capability that can be used to predict the edge formability and hole expansion ratio for polycrystalline sheet metals. The model can examine the effects of various microstructures, phase properties, and manufacturing conditions (i.e., clearance offset and tool misalignment, among others) on the shearing-induced edge damage, and it maps the edge damage to the subsequent forming simulation in predicting edge stretchability and hole expansion ratios for the edge/hole produced through various manufacturing conditions.

Capability Bounds: 

The model can be used for single- or multi-phase materials and requires individual phase property as input.

Unique Aspects: 

This capability’s uniqueness stems from its ability to integrate the prior edge manufacturing history into its final stretchability predictions. As demonstrated for aluminum and advanced high strength steels, edge quality can significantly influence formability. This is a newly developed capability at PNNL (currently not aware of similar capabilities within other national laboratories).


Computational tools are developed and published by PNNL. They use commercial finite element software, as well as in-house-developed crystal plasticity codes.

Single Point of Contact: 

Name: Erin Barker
Phone: 509-372-4727

  1. XH Hu, X Sun, SF Golovashchenko. An Integrated Finite Element-based Simulation Framework from Hole Piercing to Hole Expansion for AA6111-T4 Sheets. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design. 2015. 02/2016; 109:1-13. DOI: 10.1016/j.finel.2015.09.005
  2. XH Hu, KS Choi, X Sun, SF Golovashchenko. Edge Fracture Prediction of Traditional and Advanced Trimming Processes for AA6111-T4 Sheets. ASME Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 136(2014) 021016-1-10.
  3. XH Hu, X Sun, SF Golovashchenko. Predicting Tensile Stretchability of Trimmed AA6111-T4 Sheets. Computational Materials Science. 85 (2014) 409–419.
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